Causes and Prevention of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes has become a common issue to many people today and causes of diabetes are not well confirmed. However, studies suggest that diet, lifestyle, obesity, environmental and external factors are the main causes. Other causes suggest hereditary and age as contributing causes of diabetes. Studies also suggest that following strict weight control plans, avoiding sedentary lifestyles, smoking and alcohol aid in diabetes prevention. There are two types of diabetes;

Types of diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease which is caused by destruction of beta cell because of hostile natures of cells in the body. Some of risk factors that enhance type 1 diabetes include environmental factors, genetic factors and poor diet (Notkins, 1979). The other type of diabetes is known as type 2 diabetes.

Causes of diabetes


This is the most crucial factor when it comes to diabetes. What people consume matters a lot since some foods increases blood sugar level that results in type 2 diabetes. The most dangerous foods that increase blood sugar level are carbohydrates and those that contain sugar (Notkins, 1979).


Type 2 diabetes is characterized as lifestyle disease. Those people who lead sedentary life are prone to suffering from this disease. Lack of physical exercises lead to unexercised tissues and muscle that affects overall action of insulin and this affects its glucose utilization capacity. Stress causes malfunctioning of pancreases therefore secretion of insulin being affected (Notkins, 1979).


Obesity leads to type 2 diabetes. Being overweight is associated with insulin resistance.

Environmental and external factors

Steroids and other drugs cause diabetes. Some foods also contain chemicals that can lead to diabetes as well as infections (Notkins, 1979).

Hereditary factors

Presence of leukocyte antigen in the blood obtained from parents leads to type 1 diabetes. The chances of acquiring type 2 are increased by hypertension, high blood pressure and obesity.


Diabetes occurs most in adulthood. Older people are also at risky as they become less active therefore gaining weight leading to pancreatic dysfunction.

Diabetes prevention

Weight control

Diabetes is caused by excess weight. Being overweight increases the chances of acquiring type 2 diabetes. Obesity is also another cause of diabetes. People should maintain healthy weight to avoid suffering from diabetes. Those people who are overweight should look for ways of losing weight (Crandall et al., 2008).

Avoid sedentary lifestyle

Lack of physical exercises promotes type 2 diabetes. Excising your muscles frequently enhances their ability to utilize insulin and absorb glucose. This perfects your insulin-making cells. People do not have to do heavy exercises to reap this benefit. They can walk briskly for half an hour and this helps them to avoid being at risk of getting type 2 diabetes by 30%.

Television-sitting down and watching television increases chances of acquiring type 2 diabetes. This is because the body become relaxed and inactive. This can also lead to heart problems, obesity and overweight. The unhealthy eating habits associated with television watching may also cause diabetes (Crandall et al., 2008).

Tuning the diet

People should limit sugary drinks and choose coffee, water or tea instead. Whole grains and whole grains products may be suitable over highly processed carbohydrates. Those who intend to prevent diabetes should choose good fats.  Consumption of red meat should be limited. Avoid processed meat and choose whole grain, nuts, and poultry or fish instead (Crandall et al., 2008).

Avoid smoking

Smoking increases chances of acquiring diabetes by 50%. Those who smoke should quit and non smokers should avoid completely.


Moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of heart issues. The same applies to type 2 diabetes. Women should limit alcohol consumption to one drink and men two drinks per day. This increases the efficiency of insulin at getting glucose inside cells (Crandall et al., 2008).



Notkins, A. L. (1979). The causes of diabetes. Scientific American, 241(5), 62.

Crandall, J. P., Knowler, W. C., Kahn, S. E., Marreno, D., Florez, J. C., Bray, G. A.,… & Nathan, D. M. (2008). The prevention of type 2 diabetes. Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology & Metabolism, 4(7), 382-393.

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